BHAGAVADGITA | 13.31 | SRI ADI SANKARACARYA
anaditvan nirgunatvat paramatmayam avyayah
sarira-stho 'pi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate || 13.31 ||
13.31 Being without beginning and without qualities , O Arjuna , this immutable , supreme Self does not act , nor is It affected ( tainted ) , although existing in the body .
|| BHASYA || Anadivat , being without beginning : Adih means cause ; that which has no cause is anadih . That which has a cause undergoes loss of its own characteristics .
But this One , being causeless , has no parts . This being so , It does not suffer loss .
So also , nirgunatvat , being without qualities : indeed , It is only something possessing qualities that perishes owing to the loss of its qualities .
But this One , being without qualities , does not perish . Hence , ayam , this ; paramatma , supreme Self ; is avyayah , immutable . It suffers no depletion . Therefore It is immutable .
Since this is so , therefore , api , although ; sarira-sthah , existing in the body — since the perception of the Self occurs in the bodies , It is said to be " existing in the body " ; even then , It na , does not ; karoti , act .
From the very fact that It does not act , It na , is not ; lipyate , affected by the result of any action . For , one who is an agent of action becomes affected by its result .
But this One is not an agent . Hence It is not affected by any result . This is the meaning .
OBJECTION : Who is it , again , that acts in the body and becomes affected ?
On the one hand , if there be some embodied being other than the supreme Self who acts and becomes affected , then it has been improper to say in ,
" And also understand Me to be the Knower of the field " ,
etc , that the Knower of the field and GOD are one .
Again , if there be no embodied being who is different from GOD , then it has to be stated who is it that acts and gets affected . Or it has to be asserted that the supreme One does not exist * .
Thus , since the Upanisadic philosophy as stated by the Lord is in every way difficult to understand and difficult to explain , it has therefore been abandoned by the Vaisesikas , the Sankhyas , the Jainas and the Buddhists .
REPLY : As to that , the following refutation has been stated by the Lord Itself in ,
" But it is Nature that acts " ( 5.14 ) .
Indeed , Nature , which is nothing but ignorance , acts and becomes affected . In this way empirical dealing becomes possible ; but in reality it does not occur in the one supreme Self .
It has been accordingly shown by the Lord in various places that there is no duty to be performed by those who adhere to this philosophy of discriminating knowledge of the supreme Reality , who are steadfast in Knowledge , who have spurned actions arising out of ignorance , and who are mendicants belonging to the highest Order of monks .
( NOTE : * If the supreme One also acts like us , then IT is no GOD . )
SOURCE | SATYAVEDISM.ORG